西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(德语:Sigmund Freud,出生名:Sigismund Schlomo Freud,1856年5月6日-1939年9月23日),奥地利心理学家、精神分析学家,哲学家,犹太人。生于奥地利弗莱堡(今属捷克),后因躲避纳粹,迁居英国伦敦精神分析学的创始人,被称为“维也纳第一精神分析学派”(以别于后来发展出的第二及第三学派)。

1881年,弗洛伊德获取了维也纳大学医学博士学位后,进入一家维也纳医院工作,期间仍未放弃在脑性麻痹失语症以及微观精神解剖学方面的研究。这些临床经验为他将来对潜意识以及精神抑制机制的深刻理解和精神分析学(一种提倡通过精神分析学家与病人的沟通来治疗精神病例的学说)的提出奠定了基础。[2] 尽管他提出的精神分析学后来有部分人认为并非有效的临床治疗方法,但激发了后人提出各式各样的精神病理学理论,在临床心理学的发展史上具有重要意义。



Sigmund Freud (/frɔɪd/ FROYD; German: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna.[5][6] Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902.[7] Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis. He died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939.

In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, establishing its central role in the analytic process. Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.[8] His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mechanisms of repression. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, ego and super-ego.[9] Freud postulated the existence of libido, an energy with which mental processes and structures are invested and which generates erotic attachments, and a death drive, the source of compulsive repetition, hate, aggression and neurotic guilt. In his later work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.

Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychologypsychiatry, and psychotherapy, and across the humanities. As such, it continues to generate extensive and highly contested debate with regard to its therapeutic efficacy, its scientific status, and whether it advances or is detrimental to the feminist cause.[11] Nonetheless, Freud’s work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Auden‘s 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freud’s death, he had become “a whole climate of opinion / under whom we conduct our different lives.”


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