阅读 FIB 新题集锦汇编(上)
1.Alaska’s Aleutian Islands have long been accustomed toshipwrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran agroundnear the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanicarchipelago in 1780,inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship’s infestation scurried ashore and madeitself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in theislands.
2.No one in Parliament would know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can confer so it may seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5 per cent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to their families for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyright law is a scandal, recentlyexacerbated by the Free Trade Agreement with the US which required extension of copyright to 70 years after death.
Is it scandalous that really valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations (although Agatha Christie’s no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still reaping the benefits of West End success for her who dunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy the continuing fruits of A.A. Milne’s Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandal is that bien pensants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creating private assets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and by giving away much more in value than any public benefit could justify. In doing so they have betrayed our trust.
- Impact and management of purple loosestrife
The invasion of non-indigenous plants is considered a primary threat to integrity and function of ecosystems. However, there is little quantitative or experimental evidence for ecosystem impacts of invasive species. Justifications for control are often based on potential, but not presently realized, recognized or quantified, negative impacts. Should lack of scientific certainty about impacts of non-indigenous species result in postponing measures to prevent degradation? Recently, management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), has been criticized for lack of evidence demonstrating negative impacts of L. salicaria, and management using biocontrol for lack of evidence documenting the failure of conventional control methods. Although little quantitative evidence on negative impacts on native wetland biota and wetland function was available at the onset of the control program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that the invasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater wetlands alters decomposition rates and nutrient cycling, leads to reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seed output of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat suitability for specialized wetland bird species such as black terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marsh wrens. Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), have continuously failed to curb the spread of purple loosestrife or to provide satisfactory control. Although a number of generalist insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife, wetland habitat specialists are excluded by encroachment of L. salicaria. We conclude that negative ecosystem impacts of purple loosestrife in North America justify control of the species and that detrimental effects of purple loosestrife on wetland systems and biota and the potential benefits of control outweigh potential risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents. Long-term experiments and monitoring programs that are in place will evaluate the impact of these insects on purple loosestrife, on wetland plant succession and other wetland biota.
4.Space work for an astronaut
The space work for an astronaut can be inside or outside, inside they can monitor machines and the work is carried out alongside the craft. They also need to make sure the Space Travel. Outside the craft, they can see how the seeds react in the space. Some seeds company send seeds to them to investigate how seeds change their biological character. When outside the craft, they can set up experiments or clean up the space rubbish.
The Romans glorified the bravery shown in the arena, but trivialized the events and degraded the participants. Mosaic pictures of executions and combats, graphicallyviolent to our eyes, were displayed in the public rooms and even dining rooms in the homes of wealthy Romans. How can the viewer today possibly understand such images? Until fairly recently, modern authors writing about the arena minimized its significance and represented the institutionalized violence as a sideline to Roman history. The tendencywas also to view the events through our own eyes and to see them as pitiful or horrifying, although to most Romans empathy with victims of the arena was inconceivable. In the past few decades, however, scholars have started to analyze the complex motivations for deadly public entertainments and for contradictory views of gladiators as despised, yet beloved hero-slaves.
scientists make observations, have assumptions and do experiment. After these have been done, he got his results. Then there are a lot of data from scientists. The scientists around the world have a picture of world.
A DOG may be man’s best friend. But man is not always a dog’s. Over the centuriesselective breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as pathologies.
Dog breeding does, though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The ancestry of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their litter size reasonably large, so there is plenty of material to work with. Moreover, breeds are, by definition, inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, of America’s National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimental animal.
8.The contemporary ministerial staffing system
The contemporary ministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan – far larger and further evolved than any Westminster equivalent. Ministers’ demands for help to cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive and professionalised political environment have been key drivers of the staffing system’s development. But there has not been commensurate growth in arrangements to support and control it. Theoperating framework for ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.